Photo: Sam Weber
Museum and education, two words that should always walk hand in hand, must be, in the centuries of centuries, from our point of view. The Museum has always had a teaching function, an educational value, but that role has evolved with the passage of time:
· In ancient times, Hellenic times, the Museum was a “deposit” of objects where also educated to critics and scholars.
· In the Renaissance the Museum was a place of contemplation and enjoyment of princes and merchants for flowering, but which also contributed to enhancing the education of artists who were inspired by to view works from antiquity. We are talking about museums that hold collections.
· From the age Modern up to the present day, the Museum has gone from being a particular domain to be national heritage to the educational service of the society. In this process there is mention three key countries in the evolution of the Museum as an educational instrument: France, who nationalized the Royal Collections; Germany, which established the first methodology for the presentation of the objects in the exhibition; United States, which contributed its concern for the dissemination of the museums; and the former Soviet Union, which gave the Museum a social interpretation as an educator of the people. We can also name to England, as a country that tourism drives our interest to museums and for their enormous effort in crypta its heritage.
Photo: Wayne Levin
Since the 1960s, and even more so in the 1970s, countries and international cultural organizations strive to make museums to disclose knowledge to the company in an orderly manner and not only for the enjoyment of beauty, or to satisfy the curiosity. By them trying to revitalize the Museum “static” type (glanders) traditional to transform it into active Museum, in centre of culture for society. This transformation is based fundamentally on spend “policy of the object” to the policy of what they “want and need the public”, with special attention to making exhibitions understandable to laymen in the different subjects, providing didactic criteria and not purely aesthetic or scientific.
The Museum must have two means to approaching society, and do not move or disappear:
1. a cultural environment that contributes to raising public awareness, and thus the citizens become potential visitors of the Museum. It is complicated because it doesn’t have to be complicated to reach all levels of society. The Museum continues to maintain elite for some groups of opinion aura – need to change it.
2 on the training centres: colleges, schools, academies, universities, etc. which are potential future potential backers of museums as places of learning. Through a pedagogical attitude can educate visitors in the culture of the museums. Children, especially, need to know that they will have fun learning objects, learning to decipher its secrets in a natural way.
Photo: EVE Archives
You can place the museums at the level of the education non formal, i.e. outside the educational system to use, and open to a wide group of recipients:-school children, from pre-school education to higher education.
-Teachers of all levels education and educators in general.
-Groups of children or young people belonging to groups or associations of leisure.
-Adults, either individually or in small groups, whether organized by any institution, organization, Association, company or other collective.
-Older people, either individually or in the same way as under the previous heading.
-People with a physical or mental disability.
-People with social issues special, such as marginalization, drug addiction, offenders of different nature, etc.
-Chronically ill (mental health, for example).
-Researchers and experts.
Photo: Erik Marinovich
We consider the Museum, as it can not be otherwise obviously, as the ideal instrument for achieving what could be called cultural heritage education and whose objectives would be basically the following three: to / to publicize the heritage society in general; b / educate society that defend the heritage and fight against the abandonment or wild speculation; b / provide society Taste for the enjoyment of culture of contemplation and understanding of the historical values of the things, of heritage, for his personal and collective enrichment. Education and culture makes better men and women, makes that the world is a beautiful place to live and the best antidote to violence and contempt who is different. The Museum, in short, we insist, contributes to making better people.
Education in museums, disseminating knowledge, helps that I know how to value the things, promotes the values of respect and estimation to the indigenous culture and the other peoples of the world, develop cognitive skills (go little word) people: capacity of observation, comparison, relationship, synthesis, interpretation, etc. Therefore, once more and the last, the museums are educational centers of an extraordinary value.
Photo: EVE Archives
Starting today, we will include references at the end of our income if it brings value to the message we intend to pass on or you want to delve into the subject. Either way, we hope you find it useful.
HERRERA ESCUDERO, Maria Luisa / El museo en la educación. Su origen, evolución e importancia en la cultura moderna, Barcelona-Madrid, Index, 1971
PASTOR PONS, Inmaculada / Pedagogía museística. Nuevas perspectivas y tendencias actuales. Barcelona, Ariel, 2004. (principalmente páginas 40-46)
ZUBIAUR CARREÑO, Francisco Javier / Curso de Museología. Ediciones TREA, 2004.